Nowadays, food processing by-products, which have long raised serious environmental concerns, are recognized to be a cheap source of valuable compounds. In the present study, incor-poration of phenolic-rich extracts (500 and 1000 mg kg−1 ) from olive leaves (OL) and olive mill wastewater (OMW) into conventional gluten-free formulations has been exploited as a potential strategy for developing nutritious and healthy breadsticks with extended shelf-life. To this end, moisture, water activity (aw ), visual and textural properties, the composition of biologically active compounds (soluble, insoluble, and bio-accessible polyphenols), antioxidant activity, oxidation stability, and consumer preference of the resulting breadsticks were investigated. Fortified breadsticks had higher moisture and aw, lower hardness, and similar color in comparison to the control, especially in the case of OL extract supplementation. All enriched formulations significantly affected the phenolic composition, as evidenced by the decrease in insoluble/soluble polyphenols ratio (from 7 in the control up to 3.1 and 4.5 in OL and OMW, respectively), and a concomitant increase in polyphenol bio-accessibility (OL: 14.5–23% and OMW: 10.4–15% rise) and antioxidant activity (OL: 20–36% and OMW: 11–16% rise). Moreover, a significant shelf-life extension was observed in all fortified breadsticks (especially in case of OMW supplementation). Sensory evaluation evidenced that 61% of the assessors showed a marked, but not significant, tendency to consider the sample supplemented with high levels of OL as a more palatable choice.
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|Titolo:||Gluten-free breadsticks fortified with phenolic-rich extracts from olive leaves and olive mill wastewater|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2021|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|