The continuous increase in the cost of feeds and the need to improve the sustainability of animal production require the identification of alternative feeds, such as those derived from the agro-industrial sector, that can be effectively used for animal nutrition. Since these by-products (BP) are sources of bioactive substances, especially polyphenols, they may play an important role as a new resource for improving the nutritional value of animal-derived products, being effective in the modulation of the biohydrogenation process in the rumen, and, hence, in the composition of milk fatty acids (FA). The main objective of this work was to evaluate if the inclusion of BP in the diets of dairy ruminants, as a partial replacement of concentrates, could improve the nutritional quality of dairy products without having negative effects on animal production traits. To meet this goal, we summarized the effects of widespread agro-industrial by-products such as grape pomace or grape marc, pomegranate, olive cake, and tomato pomace on milk production, milk composition, and FA profile in dairy cows, sheep, and goats. The results evidenced that substitution of part of the ratio ingredients, mainly concentrates, in general, does not affect milk production and its main components, but at the highest tested doses, it can depress the yield within the range of 10–12%. However, the general positive effect on milk FA profile was evident by using almost all BP at different tested doses. The inclusion of these BP in the ration, from 5% up to 40% of dry matter (DM), did not depress milk yield, fat, or protein production, demonstrating positive features in terms of both economic and environmental sustainability and the reduction of human–animal competition for food. The general improvement of the nutritional quality of milk fat related to the inclusion of these BP in dairy ruminant diets is an important advantage for the commercial promotion of dairy products resulting from the recycling of agro-industrial by-products.
Grape, Pomegranate, Olive, and Tomato By-Products Fed to Dairy Ruminants Improve Milk Fatty Acid Profile without Depressing Milk Production / Correddu, F.; Caratzu, M. F.; Lunesu, M. F.; Carta, S.; Pulina, G.; Nudda, A.. - In: FOODS. - ISSN 2304-8158. - 12:4(2023), p. 865. [10.3390/foods12040865]