Antimony (Sb) and its compounds are emerging priority pollutants which pose a serious threat to the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term fate of antimonate added to different soils (S1 and S2) with respect to its mobility and impact on soil microbial communities and soil biochemical functioning. To this end, S1 (sandy clay loam, pH 8.2) and S2 (loamy coarse sand, pH 4.9) soils were spiked with 100 and 1000 mg Sb(V) kg−1 soil and left in contact for three months. Sequential extractions carried out after this contact time indicated a higher percentage of labile antimony in the Sb-spiked S1 soils than S2 (e.g. ~13 and 4% in S1 and S2 treated with 1000 mg Sb(V) kg−1 respectively), while the opposite was found for residual (hardly bioavailable) Sb. Also, a reduced number of culturable heterotrophic bacteria was recorded in Sb-spiked S1 soil (compared to the unpolluted S1), while an increased one was found in S2. Heterotrophic fungi followed the opposite trend. Actinomycetes and heat-resistant aerobic bacterial spores showed a variable trend depending on the soil type and Sb(V) treatment. The Biolog community level physiological profile indicated a reduced metabolic activity potential of microbial communities from the Sb-spiked S1 soils (e.g. <50% for Sb-1000 compared to the unpolluted S1), while an increase was recorded for those extracted from the Sb-spiked S2 soils (e.g. >2-fold for Sb-1000). The soil dehydrogenase activity followed the same trend. High-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis revealed that Sb did not influence the bacterial α-diversity in both soils, while significantly affected the composition of the respective soil bacterial communities. Several phyla (e.g. Nitrosospira Nitrososphaeraceae, Adheribacter) were found positively correlated with the concentration of water-soluble Sb in soil. Overall, the results obtained suggest that the risk assessment in soils polluted with antimony should be a priority especially for alkaline soils where the high mobility of the anionic Sb(OH)6ˉ species can pose, at least in the short-term, a serious threat for soil microbial abundance, diversity and functionality, soil fertility and eventually human health.
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|Titolo:||Mobility and potential bioavailability of antimony in contaminated soils: Short-term impact on microbial community and soil biochemical functioning|
GARAU, Giovanni (Corresponding)
CASTALDI, Paola (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|