Traditional milk coagulation properties are used to predict the suitability of milk for cheese-making. In bovine and ovine species, the introduction of the concept of curd firming over time, continuously recorded by a lactodynamograph during prolonged tests, provides additional information about milk coagulation, curd-firming, and syneresis processes. The aims of present study were (1) to test the adaptability of a 4-parameter curd-firming model in the assessment of goat milk (also comparing published data of other species); (2) to describe variability of coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis processes among individual goat milk samples; (3) to quantify the effects of farm and animal factors (breed, parity, and stage of lactation); and (4) to compare 6 goat breeds for their model parameters. Milk samples from 1,272 goats reared in 35 farms were collected. Goats were of 6 breeds: Saanen and Camosciata delle Alpi for the Alpine type; and Murciano-Granadina, Maltese, Sarda, and Sarda Primitiva for the Mediterranean type. During a lactodynamographic analysis (60 min), 240 measures of curd firmness (mm) were recorded for each milk sample. The modeling of curd firming allowed us to achieve the rennet coagulation time estimated on the basis of all the data points (min); the curd firming and the curd syneresis instant rate constants; the asymptotical potential value of curd firming; the actual maximum curd firmness; and the time at which the curd firming maximum level is attained. Modeling parameter data were analyzed using a linear mixed model. Comparison with other dairy species showed several differences: goat milk coagulated later than sheep but earlier than bovine, and curd firming and curd syneresis instant rate constants were greater in small ruminants. Modeling parameters of goat milk were mostly affected by the farm effect (37% of the total variance, on average) compared with the results found for bovine and ovine samples, and this was probably attributable to the marked differences among goat farming systems. Small differences were demonstrated between Alpine and Mediterranean breeds, but the time of maximum curd firmness was lower in Murciano-Granadina compared with Maltese, Sarda, and Sarda Primitiva. Sarda and Sarda Primitiva were very similar and exhibited the most favorable coagulation properties of milk. For almost all the model parameters, the direct effect of breed was increased after correction for milk yield and composition. In conclusion, this approach allowed us to fully depict the effects of the different factors on coagulation of goat milk, and clarified the different renneting pattern among goat breeds, and with other species. Results could be used for the valorization of goat dairy products, also when these are linked to particular local breeds, and to stimulate further studies about relationships between coagulation and cheese-making traits.
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|Titolo:||Modeling of coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of goat milk from 6 breeds|
STOCCO, Giorgia (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|