In this study we describe a case of neurological leishmaniasis in a dog, reported in an endemic area, with signs of multifocal intracranial lesions involving the vestibular system and the cerebellum. Serum biochemistry revealed a decrease of albumin-globulin ratio caused by an increase of alfa2-, beta-, and gamma- globulin, while antibody titers were highly positive for Leishmania spp. Magnetic resonance images of the brain were consistent with a granulomatous inflammation/infection. Cerebrospinal fluid revealed a marked mononuclear pleocytosis and was positive to the Pandy Test, as well as to a Leishmania spp. -specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Sequencing of the PCR products revealed the highest similarity with several strains belonging to the Leishmania infantum / Leishmania chagasi group. Clinical response to treatment for systemic leishmaniasis was supportive of diagnosis. This report focuses on an atypical form of canine leishmaniasis and suggests that in endemic geographic areas leishmaniasis has to be considered for differential diagnosis in neurological manifestations. Also, cerebrospinal liquor should always be tested when neurological symptoms are present in order to differentiate neurological leishmaniasis from unrelated neurological signs in Leishmania positive patients.
A case of canine neurological leishmaniosis / Zobba, R; Evangelisti, Ma; Manunta, Maria Lucia Gabriella M.; Alberti, Alberto; Zucca, D; PINNA PARPAGLIA, Maria Luisa. - In: VETERINARIA ITALIANA. - ISSN 1828-1427. - 53:4(2017), pp. 321-326. [10.12834/VetIt.307.1193.4]