Field surveys conducted on nine farms over a 2-year period showed the widespread presence of Phytophthora-related diseases on globe artichoke plants in the main growing area in Sardinia (Italy). Characteristic symptoms included wilting and necrosis of the outermost leaves and dark brown discoloration of stem tissues, as well as root rot. A total of 18 Phytophthora colonies belonging to three species were isolated and characterized. Based on morphological features and ITS sequence data, Phytophthora isolates were identified as P. crassamura (eight isolates) and P. cactorum (four isolates). Six isolates could not be assigned to any formally described species of Phytophthora and are therefore described here as Phytophthora marrasii sp. nov. The ITS phylogeny places P. marrasii in a terminal clade basal to the sister taxa (P. foliorum, P. hibernalis, P. lateralis, and P. ramorum) of the clade 8c. In particular, P. marrasii is phylogenetically related to P. foliorum, a species from which it differs in 62 nucleotides in the ITS region. At the same time, it can easily be distinguished morphologically from P. foliorum mainly because of the low minimum temperature for growth, the bigger and persistent non-papillate sporangia, and smaller oogonia. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that all three Phytophthora species are pathogenic on globe artichokes, which represent a new host for these pathogens.
Phylogeny and pathogenicity of phytophthora species associated with artichoke crown and root rot and description of phytophthora marrasii sp. Nov.† / Bregant, C.; Rossetto, G.; Deidda, A.; Maddau, L.; Franceschini, A.; Ionta, G.; Raiola, A.; Montecchio, L.; Linaldeddu, B. T.. - In: AGRICULTURE. - ISSN 2077-0472. - 11:9(2021), p. 873. [10.3390/agriculture11090873]