This work investigated the changes of the rumen microbiome of goats switched from a forage to a concentrate diet with special attention to anaerobic fungi (AF). Female goats were fed an alfalfa hay (AH) diet (0% grain; n = 4) for 20 days and were then abruptly shifted to a high-grain (HG) diet (40% corn grain, 60% AH; n = 4) and treated for another 10 days. Rumen content samples were collected from the cannulated animals at the end of each diet period (day 20 and 30). The microbiome structure was studied using high-throughput sequencing for bacteria, archaea (16S rRNA gene) and fungi (ITS2), accompanied by qPCR for each group. To further elucidate unclassified AF, clone library analyses were performed on the ITS1 spacer region. Rumen pH was significantly lower in HG diet fed goats, but did not induce subacute ruminal acidosis. HG diet altered prokaryotic communities, with a significant increase of Bacteroidetes and a decrease of Firmicutes. On the genus level Prevotella 1 was significantly boosted. Methanobrevibacter and Methanosphaera were the most abundant archaea regardless of the diet and HG induced a significant augmentation of unclassified Thermoplasmatales. For anaerobic fungi, HG triggered a considerable rise in Feramyces observed with both ITS markers, while a decline of Tahromyces was detected by ITS2 and decrease of Joblinomyces by ITS1 only. The uncultured BlackRhino group revealed by ITS1 and further elucidated in one sample by LSU analysis, formed a considerable part of the AF community of goats fed both diets. Results strongly indicate that the rumen ecosystem still acts as a source for novel microorganisms and unexplored microbial interactions and that initial rumen microbiota of the host animal considerably influences the reaction pattern upon diet change.
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|Titolo:||The effect of a high-grain diet on the rumen microbiome of goats with a special focus on anaerobic fungi|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2021|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|