The use of organic-based amendments for gentle remediation options (GRO), i.e. the stabilization of trace elements (TE) in polluted soils and the reduction of their impact on soil microbial and biochemical features, has been constantly growing in last 10 years. To verify the effectiveness of biochar and compost in such context, biochar (1 and 3% w/w), compost (3% w/w) and their combination (compost 2% + biochar 2% w/w) were added to two sub-alkaline soils (FS and MS) contaminated with Sb (41-99 mg kg−1 respectively), As (~ 18 mg kg−1), and trace metals such as Ni (103-172 mg kg−1 respectively) and Cr (165-132 mg kg−1 respectively). Most of the treatments (especially 3% biochar) reduced labile TE pools (water-soluble and exchangeable) and increased their residual (non-extractable) fractions (e.g. +48, 56, 66, and 68% of residual Sb, As, Cr and Ni in MS-treated soil compared to the untreated control). The amendments addition had both stimulating and inhibiting effects on the activity of soil microbial communities, as shown by the Biolog community level physiological profiles. However, in both soils, 3% biochar produced the highest increase of metabolic potential as well as the use of carboxylic acids and polymers by the soil microbial communities. Likewise, soil dehydrogenase (DHG), β-glucosidase (β-GLU) and urease (URE) activities were significantly enhanced in FS and MS soils treated with 3% biochar (e.g. +77, 48, and 17% for DHG, URE and β-GLU in FS-3% biochar with respect to untreated FS). Overall, the results from this study showed that the amendments investigated (particularly 3% biochar) can be effectively used for GRO of sub-alkaline soils, being able to reduce labile TE and to increase the metabolic potential and actual biochemical activities of the respective soil microbial communities. The manifold environmental implications of such effects are discussed.
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|Titolo:||Biochar and compost as gentle remediation options for the recovery of trace elements-contaminated soils|
CASTALDI, Paola (Corresponding)
GARAU, Giovanni (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|