Peptic ulcer disease remains a common problem and it most frequently due to the presence of an Helicobacter pylori infection or use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Dyspepsia is neither sensitive or specific for diagnosing peptic ulcer disease. The approach to patients with dyspepsia is to arrive at a definitive diagnosis without unnecessary exposure to invasive or costly diagnostic procedures. Non-invasive testing is preferred with endoscopy being reserved for those with alarm markers or above a specified age (e.g., 55 years in Western countries). Patients negative for H. pylori infection should receive an empiric trial of acid suppression for 4 to 8 weeks and if beneficial it can be continued.
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