A male excess in Sardinian type 1 diabetic cases has previously been reported and was largely restricted to those patients carrying the HLA-DR3/nonDR4 genotype. In the present study, we have measured the male-to-female (MY) ratio in a sample set of 542 newly collected, early-onset type I diabetic Sardinian patients. This data not only confirm the excess of male type 1 diabetic patients overall (MY ratio = 1.3, P = 3.9 X 10(-3)) but also that the bias in male incidence is largely confined to patients with the DR3/nonDR4 genotype (MY ratio = 1.6, P = 2.0 X 10(-4)). These sex effects could be due to a role for allelic variation of the Y chromosome in the susceptibility to type 1 diabetes, but to date this chromosome has not been evaluated in type 1 diabetes. We, therefore, established the frequencies of the various chromosome Y lineages and haplotypes in 325 Sardinian male patients, which included 180 cases with the DR3/nonDR4 genotype, and 366 Sardinian male control subjects. Our results do not support a significant involvement of the Y chromosome in DR3/nonDR4 type 1 diabetic cases nor in early-onset type 1 diabetes as a whole. Other explanations, such as X chromosome-linked inheritance, are thus required for the male bias in incidence in type 1 diabetes in Sardinia.
Sex-related bias and exclusion mapping of the nonrecombinant portion of chromosome Y in human type 1 diabetes in the isolated founder population of Sardinia / Contu, D; Morelli, Laura Cornelia Clotilde; Zavattari, P; Lampis, R; Angius, E; Frongia, P; Murru, D; Maioli, M; Francalacci, Paolo; Todd, Ja; Cucca, Francesco. - In: DIABETES. - ISSN 0012-1797. - 51:12(2002), pp. 3573-3576. [10.2337/diabetes.51.12.3573]