Genetic hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by iron overload and a variety of clinical manifestations such as liver cirrhosis and arthropathy. It is the most common genetic disease of northern European populations. The principal gene responsible for hereditary hemochromatosis, designated HFE, is located on chromosome 6 in the HLA region. The single point mutation 845A, changing cysteine at position 282 to tyrosine (C282Y), in this gene has been identified as the main genetic basis of hereditary hemochromatosis. Two other mutations, 187G, a histidine to aspartate at amino acid 63 (H63D), and 193T, a serine to cysteine at amino acid 65 (S65C), appear to be associated with milder forms of hereditary hemochromatosis. There is a high prevalence of the C282Y mutation in northern European populations, whereas in those of the Mediterranean basin the prevalence seems low and almost absent in Far East countries. This mutation seems usually to occur on the ancestral haplotype 7.1. Accordingly, a Celtic origin of this mutation has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of HFE gene mutations in five geographic regions in Italy. Samples were tested for C282Y, H63D, and S65C mutations of the HFE gene according to methods of each laboratory and the results were standardized with the exchange of typed samples between the different laboratories. In addition, C282Y-positive DNA samples were typed for D6S105 allele 8 and HLA-A3 by ARMS-PCR. We have found that the allele frequency of the C282Y mutation decreases from northeast Italy (Friuli, 6%) to northwest Italy (Piedmont, 4.8%) and to central Italy (Emilia-Romagna, 1.7%). However, this mutation is lacking in the two regions of the Mediterranean basin's center (Sicily and Sardinia). Accordingly, a significant difference in the frequency of the mutation was observed between these Italian regions (P = 0.07 x 10(-3)). In contrast, no difference was observed in allele frequency of H63D in the five Italian regions. Finally, as regards the S65C mutation a very low frequency was observed in Friuli, Emilia-Romagna, and Sardinia, whereas in Sicily and Piedmont we have not found this mutation. In conclusion, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that the C282Y mutation occurred in Caucasian populations of Celtic origin, whereas the H63D mutation is more ancient as demonstrated by the ubiquitous distribution.
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|Titolo:||Frequency of the HFE gene mutations in five Italian populations|
|Autori interni:||PES, Giovanni Mario|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2002|
|Rivista:||BLOOD CELLS, MOLECULES, & DISEASES|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|