This review summarizes epidemiologic studies published between April 2004 and March 2005. DNA of Helicobacter pylori was detected in river water, but the culture was unsuccessful. H. pylori infection was associated with Shigella infection. Despite many studies, predominant infection routes of H. pylori have not yet been clearly identified. In some limited populations in developing countries, H. pylori infection was rare or with strange distributions. Trials to reduce the H. pylori infection rate were performed including H. pylori eradication in total family units and fly control. The hypothesis of a causal role of Helicobacter species and H. pylori infection in cancer of the hepatobiliary tract was indeed confirmed.
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