Background: Cardiac procedures often induce pain and anxiety in patients, adversely impacting recovery. Pharmachological approaches have limitations, prompting exploration of innovative digital solutions like virtual reality (VR). Although early evidence suggests a potential favourable benefit with VR, it remains unclear whether the implementation of this technology can improve pain and anxiety. We aimed to assess by a systematic review and meta-analysis the effectiveness of VR in alleviating anxiety and pain on patients undergoing cardiac procedures. Methods: Our study adhered to the PRISMA method and was registered in PROSPERO under the code CRD42024504563. The search was carried out in the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library databases in January 2024. Four randomized controlled trials were included (a total of 382 patients). Risk of bias was employed to assess the quality of individual studies, and a random-effects model was utilized to examine the overall effect. Results: The results showed that VR, when compared to the standard of care, had a statistically significant impact on anxiety (SMD = -0.51, 95 % CI: -0.86 to -0.16, p = 0.004), with a heterogeneity I2 = 57 %. VR did not show a significant difference in terms of pain when compared to standard care (SMD= -0.34, 95 % CI: -0.75 to -0.07, p = 0.10). The included trials exhibited small sample sizes, substantial heterogeneity, and variations in VR technology types, lengths, and frequencies. Conclusions: VR effectively lowers anxiety levels in patients undergoing cardiac procedures, however, did not show a statistically significant difference on pain.

Effectiveness of virtual reality on pain and anxiety in patients undergoing cardiac procedures: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials / Micheluzzi, Valentina; Burrai, Francesco; Casula, Marta; Serra, Giuseppe; Al Omary, Shadi; Merella, Pierluigi; Casu, Gavino. - In: CURRENT PROBLEMS IN CARDIOLOGY. - ISSN 0146-2806. - 49:5(2024). [10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2024.102532]

Effectiveness of virtual reality on pain and anxiety in patients undergoing cardiac procedures: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Burrai, Francesco;Casula, Marta;Al Omary, Shadi;Casu, Gavino
2024-01-01

Abstract

Background: Cardiac procedures often induce pain and anxiety in patients, adversely impacting recovery. Pharmachological approaches have limitations, prompting exploration of innovative digital solutions like virtual reality (VR). Although early evidence suggests a potential favourable benefit with VR, it remains unclear whether the implementation of this technology can improve pain and anxiety. We aimed to assess by a systematic review and meta-analysis the effectiveness of VR in alleviating anxiety and pain on patients undergoing cardiac procedures. Methods: Our study adhered to the PRISMA method and was registered in PROSPERO under the code CRD42024504563. The search was carried out in the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library databases in January 2024. Four randomized controlled trials were included (a total of 382 patients). Risk of bias was employed to assess the quality of individual studies, and a random-effects model was utilized to examine the overall effect. Results: The results showed that VR, when compared to the standard of care, had a statistically significant impact on anxiety (SMD = -0.51, 95 % CI: -0.86 to -0.16, p = 0.004), with a heterogeneity I2 = 57 %. VR did not show a significant difference in terms of pain when compared to standard care (SMD= -0.34, 95 % CI: -0.75 to -0.07, p = 0.10). The included trials exhibited small sample sizes, substantial heterogeneity, and variations in VR technology types, lengths, and frequencies. Conclusions: VR effectively lowers anxiety levels in patients undergoing cardiac procedures, however, did not show a statistically significant difference on pain.
2024
Effectiveness of virtual reality on pain and anxiety in patients undergoing cardiac procedures: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials / Micheluzzi, Valentina; Burrai, Francesco; Casula, Marta; Serra, Giuseppe; Al Omary, Shadi; Merella, Pierluigi; Casu, Gavino. - In: CURRENT PROBLEMS IN CARDIOLOGY. - ISSN 0146-2806. - 49:5(2024). [10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2024.102532]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11388/329570
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