Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a diverse group of functional RNA molecules that lack the ability to code for proteins. Despite missing this traditional role, ncRNAs have emerged as crucial regulators of various biological processes and have been implicated in the development and progression of many diseases, including cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are two prominent classes of ncRNAs that have emerged as key players in cancer pathophysiology. In particular, miR-21 has been reported to exhibit oncogenic roles in various forms of human cancer, including prostate, breast, lung, and colorectal cancer. In this context, miR-21 overexpression is closely associated with tumor proliferation, growth, invasion, angiogenesis, and chemoresistance, whereas miR-21 inactivation is linked to the regression of most tumor-related processes. Accordingly, miR-21 is a crucial modulator of various canonical oncogenic pathways such as PTEN/PI3K/Akt, Wnt/beta-catenin, STAT, p53, MMP2, and MMP9. Moreover, interplays between lncRNA and miRNA further complicate the regulatory mechanisms underlying tumor development and progression. In this regard, several lncRNAs have been found to interact with miR-21 and, by functioning as competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) or miRNA sponges, can modulate cancer tumorigenesis. This work presents and discusses recent findings highlighting the roles and pathophysiological implications of the miR-21-lncRNA regulatory axis in cancer occurrence, development, and progression. The data collected indicate that specific lncRNAs, such as MEG3, CASC2, and GAS5, are strongly associated with miR-21 in various types of cancer, including gastric, cervical, lung, and glioma. Indeed, these lncRNAs are well-known tumor suppressors and are commonly downregulated in different types of tumors. Conversely, by modulating various mechanisms and oncogenic signaling pathways, their overexpression has been linked with preventing tumor formation and development. This review highlights the significance of these regulatory pathways in cancer and their potential for use in cancer therapy as diagnostic and prognostic markers.

microRNA 21 and long non-coding RNAs interplays underlie cancer pathophysiology: A narrative review / Giordo, Roberta; Ahmadi, Fatemeh Abdullah M.; Husaini, Nedal Al; Al-Nuaimi, Noora Rashid A. M.; Ahmad, Salma M. S.; Pintus, Gianfranco; Zayed, Hatem. - In: NON-CODING RNA RESEARCH. - ISSN 2468-0540. - 9:3(2024), pp. 831-852. [10.1016/j.ncrna.2024.03.013]

microRNA 21 and long non-coding RNAs interplays underlie cancer pathophysiology: A narrative review

Giordo, Roberta
Conceptualization
;
Pintus, Gianfranco
Conceptualization
;
2024-01-01

Abstract

Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a diverse group of functional RNA molecules that lack the ability to code for proteins. Despite missing this traditional role, ncRNAs have emerged as crucial regulators of various biological processes and have been implicated in the development and progression of many diseases, including cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are two prominent classes of ncRNAs that have emerged as key players in cancer pathophysiology. In particular, miR-21 has been reported to exhibit oncogenic roles in various forms of human cancer, including prostate, breast, lung, and colorectal cancer. In this context, miR-21 overexpression is closely associated with tumor proliferation, growth, invasion, angiogenesis, and chemoresistance, whereas miR-21 inactivation is linked to the regression of most tumor-related processes. Accordingly, miR-21 is a crucial modulator of various canonical oncogenic pathways such as PTEN/PI3K/Akt, Wnt/beta-catenin, STAT, p53, MMP2, and MMP9. Moreover, interplays between lncRNA and miRNA further complicate the regulatory mechanisms underlying tumor development and progression. In this regard, several lncRNAs have been found to interact with miR-21 and, by functioning as competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) or miRNA sponges, can modulate cancer tumorigenesis. This work presents and discusses recent findings highlighting the roles and pathophysiological implications of the miR-21-lncRNA regulatory axis in cancer occurrence, development, and progression. The data collected indicate that specific lncRNAs, such as MEG3, CASC2, and GAS5, are strongly associated with miR-21 in various types of cancer, including gastric, cervical, lung, and glioma. Indeed, these lncRNAs are well-known tumor suppressors and are commonly downregulated in different types of tumors. Conversely, by modulating various mechanisms and oncogenic signaling pathways, their overexpression has been linked with preventing tumor formation and development. This review highlights the significance of these regulatory pathways in cancer and their potential for use in cancer therapy as diagnostic and prognostic markers.
2024
microRNA 21 and long non-coding RNAs interplays underlie cancer pathophysiology: A narrative review / Giordo, Roberta; Ahmadi, Fatemeh Abdullah M.; Husaini, Nedal Al; Al-Nuaimi, Noora Rashid A. M.; Ahmad, Salma M. S.; Pintus, Gianfranco; Zayed, Hatem. - In: NON-CODING RNA RESEARCH. - ISSN 2468-0540. - 9:3(2024), pp. 831-852. [10.1016/j.ncrna.2024.03.013]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11388/329410
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