: Nanotechnology has gained tremendous attention because of its crucial characteristics and wide biomedical applications. Although zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are involved in many industrial applications, researchers pay more attention to their toxic effects on living organisms. Since the olfactory epithelium is exposed to the external environment, it is considered the first organ affected by ZnO-NPs. Herein, we demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of ZnO-NPs on the olfactory organ of adult zebrafish after 60 days post-treatment. We opted for this period when fishes stop eating their diet from the aquarium, appear feeble, and cannot swim freely. Our study demonstrated that ZnO-NPs induced significant malformations of the olfactory rosettes at histological, ultrastructural, and genetic levels. At the ultrastructure level, the olfactory lamellae appeared collapsed, malformed, and twisted with signs of degeneration and loss of intercellular connections. In addition, ZnO-NPs harmed sensory receptor and ciliated cells, microvilli, rodlet, crypt, and Kappe cells, with hyper-activity of mucous secretion from goblet cells. At the genetic level, ZnO-NPs could activate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis expected by the down-regulation of mRNA expression for the antioxidant-related genes and up-regulation of DNA damage, cell growth arrest, and apoptosis. Interestingly, ZnO-NPs affected the odor sensation at 60 days post-treatment (60-dpt) more than at 30-dpt, severely damaging the olfactory epithelium and irreparably affecting the cellular repairing mechanisms. This induced a dramatically adverse effect on the cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER), revealed by higher CHOP protein expression, that suppresses the antioxidant effect of Nrf2 and is followed by the induction of apoptosis via the up-regulation of Bax expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein.

Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) Induce Cytotoxicity in the Zebrafish Olfactory Organs via Activating Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis at the Ultrastructure and Genetic Levels / Al-Zahaby, Sheren A; Farag, Mayada R; Alagawany, Mahmoud; Taha, Heba S A; Varoni, Maria Vittoria; Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Mawed, Suzan Attia. - In: ANIMALS. - ISSN 2076-2615. - 13:18(2023). [10.3390/ani13182867]

Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) Induce Cytotoxicity in the Zebrafish Olfactory Organs via Activating Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis at the Ultrastructure and Genetic Levels

Varoni, Maria Vittoria
;
2023-01-01

Abstract

: Nanotechnology has gained tremendous attention because of its crucial characteristics and wide biomedical applications. Although zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are involved in many industrial applications, researchers pay more attention to their toxic effects on living organisms. Since the olfactory epithelium is exposed to the external environment, it is considered the first organ affected by ZnO-NPs. Herein, we demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of ZnO-NPs on the olfactory organ of adult zebrafish after 60 days post-treatment. We opted for this period when fishes stop eating their diet from the aquarium, appear feeble, and cannot swim freely. Our study demonstrated that ZnO-NPs induced significant malformations of the olfactory rosettes at histological, ultrastructural, and genetic levels. At the ultrastructure level, the olfactory lamellae appeared collapsed, malformed, and twisted with signs of degeneration and loss of intercellular connections. In addition, ZnO-NPs harmed sensory receptor and ciliated cells, microvilli, rodlet, crypt, and Kappe cells, with hyper-activity of mucous secretion from goblet cells. At the genetic level, ZnO-NPs could activate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis expected by the down-regulation of mRNA expression for the antioxidant-related genes and up-regulation of DNA damage, cell growth arrest, and apoptosis. Interestingly, ZnO-NPs affected the odor sensation at 60 days post-treatment (60-dpt) more than at 30-dpt, severely damaging the olfactory epithelium and irreparably affecting the cellular repairing mechanisms. This induced a dramatically adverse effect on the cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER), revealed by higher CHOP protein expression, that suppresses the antioxidant effect of Nrf2 and is followed by the induction of apoptosis via the up-regulation of Bax expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein.
2023
Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) Induce Cytotoxicity in the Zebrafish Olfactory Organs via Activating Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis at the Ultrastructure and Genetic Levels / Al-Zahaby, Sheren A; Farag, Mayada R; Alagawany, Mahmoud; Taha, Heba S A; Varoni, Maria Vittoria; Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Mawed, Suzan Attia. - In: ANIMALS. - ISSN 2076-2615. - 13:18(2023). [10.3390/ani13182867]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11388/322189
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