Amniotic fluid is essential for fetus wellbeing and is used to monitor pregnancy and predict fetal outcomes. Sex affects health and medicine from the beginning of life, but knowledge of its influence on cell-depleted amniotic fluid (AF) and amniotic fluid cells (AFCs) is still neglected. We evaluated sex-related differences in AF and in AFCs to extend personalized medicine to prenatal life. AFCs and AF were obtained from healthy Caucasian pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis at the 16th-18th week of gestation for advanced maternal age. In the AF, inflammation biomarkers (TNF alpha, IL6, IL8, and IL4), malondialdehyde, nitrites, amino acids, and acylcarnitines were measured. Estrogen receptors and cell fate (autophagy, apoptosis, senescence) were measured in AFCs. TNF alpha, IL8, and IL4 were higher in female AF, whereas IL6, nitrites, and MDA were similar. Valine was higher in male AF, whereas several acylcarnitines were sexually different, suggesting a mitochondrial involvement in establishing sex differences. Female AFCs displayed higher expression of ER alpha protein and a higher ER alpha/ER beta ratio. The ratio of LC3II/I, an index of autophagy, was higher in female AFCs, while LC3 gene was similar in both sexes. No significant sex differences were found in the expression of the lysosomal protein LAMP1, while p62 was higher in male AFCs. LAMP1 gene was upregulated in male AFCs, while p62 gene was upregulated in female ones. Finally, caspase 9 activity and senescence linked to telomeres were higher in female AFCs, while caspase 3 and beta-galactosidase activities were similar. This study supports the idea that sex differences start very early in prenatal life and influence specific parameters, suggesting that it may be relevant to appreciate sex differences to cover knowledge gaps. This might lead to improving the diagnosis of risk prediction for pregnancy complications and achieving a more satisfactory monitoring of fetus health, even preventing future diseases in adulthood.

Stratification of Amniotic Fluid Cells and Amniotic Fluid by Sex Opens Up New Perspectives on Fetal Health / Campesi, I.; Capobianco, G.; Cano, A.; Lodde, V.; Cruciani, S.; Maioli, M.; Sotgiu, G.; Idda, M. L.; Puci, M. V.; Ruoppolo, M.; Costanzo, M.; Caterino, M.; Cambosu, F.; Montella, A.; Franconi, F.. - In: BIOMEDICINES. - ISSN 2227-9059. - 11:10(2023). [10.3390/biomedicines11102830]

Stratification of Amniotic Fluid Cells and Amniotic Fluid by Sex Opens Up New Perspectives on Fetal Health

Campesi I.;Capobianco G.;Lodde V.;Cruciani S.;Maioli M.;Sotgiu G.;Idda M. L.;Puci M. V.;Montella A.;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Amniotic fluid is essential for fetus wellbeing and is used to monitor pregnancy and predict fetal outcomes. Sex affects health and medicine from the beginning of life, but knowledge of its influence on cell-depleted amniotic fluid (AF) and amniotic fluid cells (AFCs) is still neglected. We evaluated sex-related differences in AF and in AFCs to extend personalized medicine to prenatal life. AFCs and AF were obtained from healthy Caucasian pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis at the 16th-18th week of gestation for advanced maternal age. In the AF, inflammation biomarkers (TNF alpha, IL6, IL8, and IL4), malondialdehyde, nitrites, amino acids, and acylcarnitines were measured. Estrogen receptors and cell fate (autophagy, apoptosis, senescence) were measured in AFCs. TNF alpha, IL8, and IL4 were higher in female AF, whereas IL6, nitrites, and MDA were similar. Valine was higher in male AF, whereas several acylcarnitines were sexually different, suggesting a mitochondrial involvement in establishing sex differences. Female AFCs displayed higher expression of ER alpha protein and a higher ER alpha/ER beta ratio. The ratio of LC3II/I, an index of autophagy, was higher in female AFCs, while LC3 gene was similar in both sexes. No significant sex differences were found in the expression of the lysosomal protein LAMP1, while p62 was higher in male AFCs. LAMP1 gene was upregulated in male AFCs, while p62 gene was upregulated in female ones. Finally, caspase 9 activity and senescence linked to telomeres were higher in female AFCs, while caspase 3 and beta-galactosidase activities were similar. This study supports the idea that sex differences start very early in prenatal life and influence specific parameters, suggesting that it may be relevant to appreciate sex differences to cover knowledge gaps. This might lead to improving the diagnosis of risk prediction for pregnancy complications and achieving a more satisfactory monitoring of fetus health, even preventing future diseases in adulthood.
2023
Stratification of Amniotic Fluid Cells and Amniotic Fluid by Sex Opens Up New Perspectives on Fetal Health / Campesi, I.; Capobianco, G.; Cano, A.; Lodde, V.; Cruciani, S.; Maioli, M.; Sotgiu, G.; Idda, M. L.; Puci, M. V.; Ruoppolo, M.; Costanzo, M.; Caterino, M.; Cambosu, F.; Montella, A.; Franconi, F.. - In: BIOMEDICINES. - ISSN 2227-9059. - 11:10(2023). [10.3390/biomedicines11102830]
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11388/320909
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 1
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact