Lung cancer is one of the most common human malignancies and the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Novel therapeutic approaches, like targeted therapies against specific molecular alterations and immunotherapy, have revolutionized in the last decade the oncological outcomes in patients affected by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The advent of immunotherapy for the treatment of NSCLC has significantly improved overall and progression-free survival, as well as the patient’s quality of life in comparison to traditional chemotherapy. Currently, it is estimated that long-term survival can be achieved in more than 15% of NSCLC patients treated with immunotherapy. Therefore, the optimal duration of immunotherapy in long survivors needs to be established to avoid overtreatment, side effects, and high costs and at the same time, protect them from potential disease relapse or progression. We performed a narrative review to discuss all the aspects related to the optimal duration of immunotherapy in long survivors with NSCLC. Data regarding the duration of immunotherapy in the most impacting clinical trials were collected, along with data regarding the impact of toxicities, side effects, and costs for healthcare providers. In addition, the two-year immunotherapy scheme in patients who benefit from first-line or subsequent treatment lines are examined, and the need for biomarkers that can predict outcomes during and after immunotherapy cessation in patients affected by NSCLC are discussed.
Duration of Immunotherapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Survivors: A Lifelong Commitment? / Putzu, C.; Canova, S.; Paliogiannis, P.; Lobrano, R.; Sala, L.; Cortinovis, D. L.; Colonese, F.. - In: CANCERS. - ISSN 2072-6694. - 15:3(2023), p. 689. [10.3390/cancers15030689]