Abstract Introduction In the last few months, some pediatric cases with neurological and neuroradiological pictures related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections have been reported, often associated with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). The most frequently encountered pediatric neurological complications seem to be postinfectious immune-mediated acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like changes of the brain, myelitis, neural enhancement, and splenial lesions. Concomitant neurological and cardiac involvement has been reported only in MIS-C, although specific clinical details are often not fully available. Methods In this case report, a very young child infected with SARs-CoV-2 and diagnosed as longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis with concomitant myo-pericarditis is presented. Results A previously healthy 7-month-old girl presented with abrupt onset of generalized weakness with inability to sit up. She had had mild respiratory symptoms 1 week earlier. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a T2-hyperintense intramedullary lesion extending from C4 to T2, compatible with acute longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was negative. Echocardiography and blood tests were suggestive for myo-pericarditis. Real time polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 on nasopharyngeal swab sample tested positive. She was promptly treated with high dose of steroids and immunoglobulin with satisfactory clinical response. Conclusion To the evolving literature of neurological complications of SARs-CoV-2 infection, we add the youngest patient described to date with isolated LETM and concomitant cardiac involvement. Our case suggests that clinicians should be aware of this association, although difficult to recognize in infants. Practitioners are encouraged to consider aggressive first-line immunotherapies with the final aim to prevent permanent disability.
Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis (LETM) and Myopericarditis in a 7-Month-Old Child with SARs-CoV-2 Infection / Brisca, G.; Sotgiu, S.; Pirlo, D.; Tubino, B.; Siri, L.; Chianucci, B.; Carta, A.; Rossi, A.; Mallamaci, M.; Cataldi, M.; Mancardi, M. M.. - In: NEUROPEDIATRICS. - ISSN 0174-304X. - 53:1(2022), pp. 61-64. [10.1055/s-0041-1732364]