The calibration of a reliable phenological model for olive grown in areas characterized by great environmental heterogeneity, like Italy, where many varieties exist, is challenging and often suffers from a lack of observations, especially on budbreak. In this study, we used a database encompassing many phenological events from different olive varieties, years, and sites scattered all over Italy to identify the phases in which site-enlarged developmental rates can be well regressed against air temperature (Developmental Rate function, DR) by testing both linear and nonlinear functions. A K-fold cross-validation (KfCV) was carried out to evaluate the ability of DR functions to predict phenological development. The cross-validation showed that the phases ranging from budbreak (BBCH 01 and 07) to flowering (BBCH 61 and 65) and from the beginning of flowering (BBCH 51) to flowering can be simulated with high accuracy (r(2) = 0.93-0.96; RMSE = 3.9-6.6 days) with no appreciable difference among linear and nonlinear functions. Thus, the resulting DRs represent a simple yet reliable tool for regional phenological simulations for these phases in Italy, paving the way for a reverse modeling approach aimed at reconstructing the budbreak dates. By contrast, and despite a large number of phases explored, no appreciable results were obtained on other phases, suggesting possible interplays of different drivers that need to be further investigated.
A phenological model for olive (Olea europaea l. var europaea) growing in italy / Di Paola, A.; Chiriaco, M. V.; Di Paola, F.; Nieddu, G.. - In: PLANTS. - ISSN 2223-7747. - 10:6(2021), p. 1115. [10.3390/plants10061115]