Simple Summary Pulmonologist-performed US-NAB of "superficial" metastatic lesions is safe and has an excellent diagnostic yield for both tissue diagnosis and molecular profiling regardless of the use of rapid on-site evaluation. These findings have important implications for costs, hospital resource allocation, and the globally widespread utilization of US-NAB. Background and Objective: Studies which evaluated the role of an ultrasound-guided needle aspiration biopsy (US-NAB) of metastases from lung cancer located in "superficial" organs/tissues are scant, and none of them assessed the possible impact of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) on diagnostic accuracy and safety outcomes. Methods: Consecutive patients with suspected superficial metastases from lung cancer were randomized 1:1 to US-NAB without (US-NAB group) or with ROSE (ROSE group). The diagnostic yield for a tissue diagnosis was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included the diagnostic yield for cancer genotyping, the diagnostic yield for PD-L1 testing, and safety. Results: During the study period, 136 patients were randomized to receive an US-NAB with (n = 68) or without ROSE (n = 68). We found no significant differences between the ROSE group and the US-NAB group in terms of the diagnostic yields for tissue diagnosis (94.1% vs. 97%, respectively; p = 0.68), cancer genotyping (88% vs. 91.8%, respectively; p = 0.56), and PD-L1 testing (93.5% vs. 90.6%, respectively; p = 0.60). Compared to the diagnostic US-NAB procedures, the non-diagnostic procedures were characterized by less common use of a cutting needle (66.6% vs. 96.9%, respectively; p = 0.0004) and less common retrieval of a tissue core (37.5% vs. 98.5%; p = 0.0001). Only one adverse event (vasovagal syncope) was recorded. Conclusion: US-NAB of superficial metastases is safe and has an excellent diagnostic success regardless of the availability of ROSE. These findings provide a strong rationale for using US-NAB as the first-step method for tissue acquisition whenever a suspected superficial metastatic lesion is identified in patients with suspected lung cancer.
Ultrasound-Guided Needle Aspiration Biopsy of Superficial Metastasis of Lung Cancer with and without Rapid On-Site Evaluation: A Randomized Trial / Livi, Vanina; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Cancellieri, Alessandra; Paioli, Daniela; Leoncini, Fausto; Magnini, Daniele; Trisolini, Rocco. - In: CANCERS. - ISSN 2072-6694. - 14:20(2022), p. 5156. [10.3390/cancers14205156]