Simple Summary Malignant Catarrhal Fever is a globally distributed disease that is fatal to susceptible species such as cattle. Sheep represent the reservoir species, and the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, which hosts a large number of these animals, is one geographic area where virus can easily spread. The aim of our study was to investigate a case of Malignant Catarrhal Fever in a calf, also studying the prevalence of the virus responsible, Ovine Herpesvirus type 2, among sheep in Sardinia to further investigate the epidemiological aspects. The analyses performed were consistent among each other; indeed, the histological analysis revealed patterns of lesions, which are commonly reported in literature, in many tissue samples of the calf object of the study. We also found a considerable number of copies of viral genomes in all examined organs of the animal. Phylogenetic analyses suggested the possible occurrence of a unique genetic cluster that is widely distributed across the whole Italian territory. In conclusion, the present study provides a comprehensive overview on the Malignant Catarrhal Fever in an area where, despite the high prevalence of the Ovine Herpesvirus type 2 found among sheep, the sporadic occurrence of clinical disease in bovine should be still deeply investigated. Using a multidisciplinary approach, this report describes a clinical case of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) occurring in a calf, which shared the pasture with sheep on a farm located in the island of Sardinia (Italy). We confirmed the conventional clinico-histopathological features of MCF, as well was the presence of Ovine herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2) DNA in several tissues, employing histological and virological investigations. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that this Sardinian OvHV-2 strain is genetically similar to all the other Italian strains. By Real Time PCR examinations of blood samples collected across Sardinia's sheep population, which is considered the most important reservoir species, we discovered an OvHV-2 prevalence ranging from 20 to 30 percent. Despite the high prevalence of OvHV-2 in the Sardinian sheep population, clinical disease in bovine remains sporadic; further investigations are needed to understand the risk factors that regulate this epidemiological aspect.

Malignant Catarrhal Fever in Sardinia (Italy): A Case Report / Coradduzza, Elisabetta; Scivoli, Rosario; Pintus, Davide; Rocchigiani, Angela Maria; Cancedda, Maria Giovanna; Sanna, Daria; Macciocu, Simona; Scarpa, Fabio; Bechere, Roberto; Puggioni, Giantonella; Ligios, Ciriaco. - In: VETERINARY SCIENCES. - ISSN 2306-7381. - 9:8(2022), p. 442. [10.3390/vetsci9080442]

Malignant Catarrhal Fever in Sardinia (Italy): A Case Report

Coradduzza, Elisabetta;Scivoli, Rosario;Sanna, Daria;Scarpa, Fabio;Bechere, Roberto;Puggioni, Giantonella;Ligios, Ciriaco
2022

Abstract

Simple Summary Malignant Catarrhal Fever is a globally distributed disease that is fatal to susceptible species such as cattle. Sheep represent the reservoir species, and the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, which hosts a large number of these animals, is one geographic area where virus can easily spread. The aim of our study was to investigate a case of Malignant Catarrhal Fever in a calf, also studying the prevalence of the virus responsible, Ovine Herpesvirus type 2, among sheep in Sardinia to further investigate the epidemiological aspects. The analyses performed were consistent among each other; indeed, the histological analysis revealed patterns of lesions, which are commonly reported in literature, in many tissue samples of the calf object of the study. We also found a considerable number of copies of viral genomes in all examined organs of the animal. Phylogenetic analyses suggested the possible occurrence of a unique genetic cluster that is widely distributed across the whole Italian territory. In conclusion, the present study provides a comprehensive overview on the Malignant Catarrhal Fever in an area where, despite the high prevalence of the Ovine Herpesvirus type 2 found among sheep, the sporadic occurrence of clinical disease in bovine should be still deeply investigated. Using a multidisciplinary approach, this report describes a clinical case of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) occurring in a calf, which shared the pasture with sheep on a farm located in the island of Sardinia (Italy). We confirmed the conventional clinico-histopathological features of MCF, as well was the presence of Ovine herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2) DNA in several tissues, employing histological and virological investigations. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that this Sardinian OvHV-2 strain is genetically similar to all the other Italian strains. By Real Time PCR examinations of blood samples collected across Sardinia's sheep population, which is considered the most important reservoir species, we discovered an OvHV-2 prevalence ranging from 20 to 30 percent. Despite the high prevalence of OvHV-2 in the Sardinian sheep population, clinical disease in bovine remains sporadic; further investigations are needed to understand the risk factors that regulate this epidemiological aspect.
Malignant Catarrhal Fever in Sardinia (Italy): A Case Report / Coradduzza, Elisabetta; Scivoli, Rosario; Pintus, Davide; Rocchigiani, Angela Maria; Cancedda, Maria Giovanna; Sanna, Daria; Macciocu, Simona; Scarpa, Fabio; Bechere, Roberto; Puggioni, Giantonella; Ligios, Ciriaco. - In: VETERINARY SCIENCES. - ISSN 2306-7381. - 9:8(2022), p. 442. [10.3390/vetsci9080442]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11388/296469
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