Background: Many women worldwide are diagnosed with cancer in prepubertal, postpubertal and childbearing age. Oncological treat- ments can compromise future fertility through different mechanisms mainly depending on the type of treatment and the age of the patient. International societies recommend that cancer patients should receive information regarding the effects of oncological treatments on their reproductive health and cancer survivors should not be discouraged from becoming pregnant. About a quarter of these patients still do not receive an adequate counselling and young cancer survivors may face several barriers to conceiving a pregnancy due to the concerns from gynaecologists and oncologists. Methods: This review aims to investigate the infertility risk for female cancer patients who undergo on- cological treatments and to provide an overview of actual and future fertility preservation possibilities for female cancer patients. Results: Different fertility preservation techniques have been developed in order to ensure the possibility for cancer survivors to complete their family planning after cancer. Oocyte/embryo freezing and ovarian tissue cryopreservation are the established choices, but the research is still going on to increase the success rate of these techniques and to develop other techniques to overcome actual limitations. Patients with a systemic oncological disease such as leukaemia could particularly benefit from the new experimental techniques which involve the creation of an artificial ovary or the in vitro growth of follicles or even the obtaining of mature oocytes from stem cells. All these techniques would allow the achievement of pregnancy without the risk of reintroducing malignant cells within autologous cryopreserved ovarian tissue transplantation. Regarding the concerns over pregnancy in cancer survivors, research is rapidly advancing and reassuring data are increasing. Conclusions: The rate of utilisation of gametes, embryos or ovarian tissue previously stored for fertility preservation is still low and the motivations can be various. Further data are needed in order to reassure both women and oncologists about the safety of pregnancy in cancer survivors and in order to increase the rate of women experiencing pregnancy after cancer.
Fertility Preservation in Girls and Women: State of Art and Future Possibilities / Andrisani, Alessandra; Rossato, Marco; Nuzzi, Ludovica; Vio, Chiara; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Capobianco, Giampiero; Esposito, Federica; Ambrosini, Guido; Marin, Loris. - In: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY. - ISSN 0390-6663. - 49:9(2022), pp. 206-216. [10.31083/j.ceog4909206]