In this paper, the coupled phase field and local/nonlocal integral elasticity theories are used for stress-induced martensitic phase transformations (MPTs) at the nanoscale to investigate the limitations and contradictions of the nonlocal integral elasticity, which are due to the fact that the support of the nonlocal kernel exceeds the integration domain, i.e., the boundary effect. Different functions for the nonlocal kernel are compared. In order to compensate the boundary effect, a new nonlocal kernel, i.e., the compensated two-phase kernel, is introduced, in which a local part is added to the nonlocal part of the two-phase kernel to account for the boundary effect. In contrast to the previously introduced modified kernel, the compensated two-phase kernel does not lead to a purely nonlocal behavior in the core region, and hence no singular behavior, and consequently, no computational convergence issue is observed. The nonlinear finite element approach and the COMSOL code are used to solve the coupled system of Ginzburg–Landau and local/nonlocal integral elasticity equations. The numerical implementation of the phase field-local elasticity equations and the 2D nonlocal integral elasticity are verified. Boundary effect is investigated for MPT with both homogeneous and nonhomogeneous stress distributions. For the former, in contrast to the local elasticity, a nonhomogeneous phase transformation (PT) occurs in the nonlocal case with the two-phase kernel. Using the compensated two-phase kernel results in a homogeneous PT similar to the local elasticity. For the latter, the sample transforms to martensite except the adjacent region to the boundary for the local elasticity, while for the two-phase kernel, the entire sample transforms to martensite. The solution of the compensated two-phase kernel, however, is very similar to that of the local elasticity. The applicability of boundary symmetry in phase field problems is also investigated, which shows that it leads to incorrect results within the nonlocal integral elasticity. This is because when the symmetric portions of a sample are removed, the corresponding nonlocal effects on the remaining portion are neglected and the symmetric boundaries violate the normalization condition. An example is presented in which the results of a complete model with the two-phase kernel are different from those of its one-fourth model. In contrast, the compensated two-phase kernel can generate similar solutions for both the complete and one-fourth models. However, in general, none of the nonlocal kernels can overcome this issue. Therefore, the symmetrical models are not recommended for nonlocal integral elasticity based phase field simulations of MPTs. The current study helps for a better study of nonlocal elasticity based phase field problems for various phenomena such as various PTs.

Coupled phase field and nonlocal integral elasticity analysis of stress-induced martensitic transformations at the nanoscale: boundary effects, limitations and contradictions / Danesh, H.; Javanbakht, M.; Barchiesi, E.; Hamila, N.. - In: CONTINUUM MECHANICS AND THERMODYNAMICS. - ISSN 0935-1175. - 35:3(2023), pp. 1041-1062. [10.1007/s00161-021-01042-y]

### Coupled phase field and nonlocal integral elasticity analysis of stress-induced martensitic transformations at the nanoscale: boundary effects, limitations and contradictions

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*Barchiesi E.;*

##### 2023-01-01

#### Abstract

In this paper, the coupled phase field and local/nonlocal integral elasticity theories are used for stress-induced martensitic phase transformations (MPTs) at the nanoscale to investigate the limitations and contradictions of the nonlocal integral elasticity, which are due to the fact that the support of the nonlocal kernel exceeds the integration domain, i.e., the boundary effect. Different functions for the nonlocal kernel are compared. In order to compensate the boundary effect, a new nonlocal kernel, i.e., the compensated two-phase kernel, is introduced, in which a local part is added to the nonlocal part of the two-phase kernel to account for the boundary effect. In contrast to the previously introduced modified kernel, the compensated two-phase kernel does not lead to a purely nonlocal behavior in the core region, and hence no singular behavior, and consequently, no computational convergence issue is observed. The nonlinear finite element approach and the COMSOL code are used to solve the coupled system of Ginzburg–Landau and local/nonlocal integral elasticity equations. The numerical implementation of the phase field-local elasticity equations and the 2D nonlocal integral elasticity are verified. Boundary effect is investigated for MPT with both homogeneous and nonhomogeneous stress distributions. For the former, in contrast to the local elasticity, a nonhomogeneous phase transformation (PT) occurs in the nonlocal case with the two-phase kernel. Using the compensated two-phase kernel results in a homogeneous PT similar to the local elasticity. For the latter, the sample transforms to martensite except the adjacent region to the boundary for the local elasticity, while for the two-phase kernel, the entire sample transforms to martensite. The solution of the compensated two-phase kernel, however, is very similar to that of the local elasticity. The applicability of boundary symmetry in phase field problems is also investigated, which shows that it leads to incorrect results within the nonlocal integral elasticity. This is because when the symmetric portions of a sample are removed, the corresponding nonlocal effects on the remaining portion are neglected and the symmetric boundaries violate the normalization condition. An example is presented in which the results of a complete model with the two-phase kernel are different from those of its one-fourth model. In contrast, the compensated two-phase kernel can generate similar solutions for both the complete and one-fourth models. However, in general, none of the nonlocal kernels can overcome this issue. Therefore, the symmetrical models are not recommended for nonlocal integral elasticity based phase field simulations of MPTs. The current study helps for a better study of nonlocal elasticity based phase field problems for various phenomena such as various PTs.I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.