BackgroundTrichomonas vaginalisis the causative agent of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection world-wide. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this haploid parasite due to the lack of appropriate tools. The development of a panel of microsatellite makers and SNPs from mining the parasite's genome sequence has paved the way to a global analysis of the genetic structure of the pathogen and association with clinical phenotypes.Methodology/Principal FindingsHere we utilize a panel ofT. vaginalis-specific genetic markers to genotype 235 isolates from Mexico, Chile, India, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Italy, Africa and the United States, including 19 clinical isolates recently collected from 270 women attending New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics. Using population genetic analysis, we show thatT. vaginalisis a genetically diverse parasite with a unique population structure consisting of two types present in equal proportions world-wide. Parasites belonging to the two types (type 1 and type 2) differ significantly in the rate at which they harbor theT. vaginalisvirus, a dsRNA virus implicated in parasite pathogenesis, and in their sensitivity to the widely-used drug, metronidazole. We also uncover evidence of genetic exchange, indicating a sexual life-cycle of the parasite despite an absence of morphologically-distinct sexual stages.Conclusions/SignificanceOur study represents the first robust and comprehensive evaluation of globalT. vaginalisgenetic diversity and population structure. Our identification of a unique two-type structure, and the clinically relevant phenotypes associated with them, provides a new dimension for understandingT. vaginalispathogenesis. In addition, our demonstration of the possibility of genetic exchange in the parasite has important implications for genetic research and control of the disease.

Extensive genetic diversity, unique population structure and evidence of genetic exchange in the sexually transmitted parasiteTrichomonas vaginalis / Fiori, Pier Luigi; Gorman, Andrew W.; Schillinger, Julia A.; Arroyo Verastegui, Rossana; Malla, Nancy; Dubey, Mohan Lal; González, Jorge; Blank, Susan; Secor, William E.; Carlton, Jane M.; Conrad, Melissa D.. - 6:3(2012). [10.1371/journal.pntd.0001573]

Extensive genetic diversity, unique population structure and evidence of genetic exchange in the sexually transmitted parasiteTrichomonas vaginalis

Fiori, Pier Luigi;González, Jorge;
2012

Abstract

BackgroundTrichomonas vaginalisis the causative agent of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection world-wide. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this haploid parasite due to the lack of appropriate tools. The development of a panel of microsatellite makers and SNPs from mining the parasite's genome sequence has paved the way to a global analysis of the genetic structure of the pathogen and association with clinical phenotypes.Methodology/Principal FindingsHere we utilize a panel ofT. vaginalis-specific genetic markers to genotype 235 isolates from Mexico, Chile, India, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Italy, Africa and the United States, including 19 clinical isolates recently collected from 270 women attending New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics. Using population genetic analysis, we show thatT. vaginalisis a genetically diverse parasite with a unique population structure consisting of two types present in equal proportions world-wide. Parasites belonging to the two types (type 1 and type 2) differ significantly in the rate at which they harbor theT. vaginalisvirus, a dsRNA virus implicated in parasite pathogenesis, and in their sensitivity to the widely-used drug, metronidazole. We also uncover evidence of genetic exchange, indicating a sexual life-cycle of the parasite despite an absence of morphologically-distinct sexual stages.Conclusions/SignificanceOur study represents the first robust and comprehensive evaluation of globalT. vaginalisgenetic diversity and population structure. Our identification of a unique two-type structure, and the clinically relevant phenotypes associated with them, provides a new dimension for understandingT. vaginalispathogenesis. In addition, our demonstration of the possibility of genetic exchange in the parasite has important implications for genetic research and control of the disease.
Extensive genetic diversity, unique population structure and evidence of genetic exchange in the sexually transmitted parasiteTrichomonas vaginalis / Fiori, Pier Luigi; Gorman, Andrew W.; Schillinger, Julia A.; Arroyo Verastegui, Rossana; Malla, Nancy; Dubey, Mohan Lal; González, Jorge; Blank, Susan; Secor, William E.; Carlton, Jane M.; Conrad, Melissa D.. - 6:3(2012). [10.1371/journal.pntd.0001573]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11388/262216
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