MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that play a role in cancer linked to the regulation of important cellular processes and pathways involving tumorigenesis, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. A lot of human miRNA sequences have been identified which are linked to cancer pathogenesis. MicroRNAs, in prostate cancer (PC), play a relevant role as biomarkers, show a specific profile, and have been used as therapeutic targets. Prostate cancer (PC) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. Clinical diagnoses among the gold standards for PC diagnosis and monitoring are prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, digital rectal examination, and prostate needle biopsies. PSA screening still has a large grey area of patients, which leads to overdiagnosis. Therefore, new biomarkers are needed to improve existing diagnostic tools. The miRNA expression profiles from tumour versus normal tissues are helpful and exhibit significant differences not only between cancerous and non-cancerous tissues, but also between different cancer types and subtypes. In this review, we focus on the role of miRNAs-145, 148, and 185 and their correlation with stem cells in prostate cancer pathogenesis. MiR-145, by modulating multiple oncogenes, regulates different cellular processes in PC, which are involved in the transition from localised to metastatic disease. MiR-148 is downregulated in high-grade tumours, suggesting that the miR-148-3 family might act as tumour suppressors in PC as a potential biomarker for detecting this disease. MiR-185 regulation is still unclear in being able to regulate tumour processes in PC. Nevertheless, other authors confirm the role of this miRNA as a tumour suppressor, suggesting its potential use as a suitable biomarker in disease prognosis. These three miRNAs are all involved in the regulation of prostate cancer stem cell behaviour (PCSCs). Within this contest, PCSCs are often involved in the onset of chemo-resistance in PC, therefore strategies for targeting this subset of cells are strongly required to control the disease. Hence, the relationship between these two players is interesting and important in prostate cancer pathogenesis and in PCSC stemness regulation, in the attempt to pave the way for novel therapeutic targets in prostate cancer.

Role of miRNA-145, 148, and 185 and Stem Cells in Prostate Cancer / Coradduzza, D.; Cruciani, S.; Arru, C.; Garroni, G.; Pashchenko, A.; Jedea, M.; Zappavigna, S.; Caraglia, M.; Amler, E.; Carru, C.; Maioli, M.. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1661-6596. - 23:3(2022), p. 1626. [10.3390/ijms23031626]

Role of miRNA-145, 148, and 185 and Stem Cells in Prostate Cancer

Carru C.;Maioli M.
2022

Abstract

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that play a role in cancer linked to the regulation of important cellular processes and pathways involving tumorigenesis, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. A lot of human miRNA sequences have been identified which are linked to cancer pathogenesis. MicroRNAs, in prostate cancer (PC), play a relevant role as biomarkers, show a specific profile, and have been used as therapeutic targets. Prostate cancer (PC) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. Clinical diagnoses among the gold standards for PC diagnosis and monitoring are prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, digital rectal examination, and prostate needle biopsies. PSA screening still has a large grey area of patients, which leads to overdiagnosis. Therefore, new biomarkers are needed to improve existing diagnostic tools. The miRNA expression profiles from tumour versus normal tissues are helpful and exhibit significant differences not only between cancerous and non-cancerous tissues, but also between different cancer types and subtypes. In this review, we focus on the role of miRNAs-145, 148, and 185 and their correlation with stem cells in prostate cancer pathogenesis. MiR-145, by modulating multiple oncogenes, regulates different cellular processes in PC, which are involved in the transition from localised to metastatic disease. MiR-148 is downregulated in high-grade tumours, suggesting that the miR-148-3 family might act as tumour suppressors in PC as a potential biomarker for detecting this disease. MiR-185 regulation is still unclear in being able to regulate tumour processes in PC. Nevertheless, other authors confirm the role of this miRNA as a tumour suppressor, suggesting its potential use as a suitable biomarker in disease prognosis. These three miRNAs are all involved in the regulation of prostate cancer stem cell behaviour (PCSCs). Within this contest, PCSCs are often involved in the onset of chemo-resistance in PC, therefore strategies for targeting this subset of cells are strongly required to control the disease. Hence, the relationship between these two players is interesting and important in prostate cancer pathogenesis and in PCSC stemness regulation, in the attempt to pave the way for novel therapeutic targets in prostate cancer.
Role of miRNA-145, 148, and 185 and Stem Cells in Prostate Cancer / Coradduzza, D.; Cruciani, S.; Arru, C.; Garroni, G.; Pashchenko, A.; Jedea, M.; Zappavigna, S.; Caraglia, M.; Amler, E.; Carru, C.; Maioli, M.. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1661-6596. - 23:3(2022), p. 1626. [10.3390/ijms23031626]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11388/255418
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