Cutaneous melanoma is one of the most aggressive and metastatic forms of skin cancer. However, current therapeutic options present several limitations, and the annual death rate due to melanoma increases every year. Dermal delivery of nanomedicines can effectively eradicate primary melanoma lesions, avoid the metastatic process, and improve survival. Rose Bengal (RB) is a sono-photosensitizer drug with intrinsic cytotoxicity toward melanoma without external stimuli but the biopharmaceutical profile limits its clinical use. Here, we propose deformable lipid nanovesicles, also known as transfersomes (TF), for the targeted dermal delivery of RB to melanoma lesions to eradicate them in the absence of external stimuli. Considering RB's poor ability to cross the stratum corneum and its photosensitizer nature, transfersomal carriers were selected simultaneously to enhance RB penetration to the deepest skin layers and protect RB from undesired photodegradation. RB-loaded TF dispersion (RB-TF), prepared by a modified reverse-phase evaporation method, were nanosized with a ζ-potential value below -30 mV. The spectrophotometric and fluorimetric analysis revealed that RB efficiently interacted with the lipid phase. The morphological investigations (transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering) proved that RB intercalated within the phospholipid bilayer of TF originating unilamellar and deformable vesicles, in contrast to the rigid multilamellar unloaded ones. Such outcomes agree with the results of the in vitro permeation study, where the lack of a burst RB permeation peak for RB-TF, observed instead for the free drug, suggests that a significant amount of RB interacted with lipid nanovesicles. Also, RB-TF proved to protect RB from undesired photodegradation over 24 h of direct light exposure. The ex vivo epidermis permeation study proved that RB-TF significantly increased RB's amount permeating the epidermis compared to the free drug (78.31 vs 38.31%). Finally, the antiproliferative assays on melanoma cells suggested that RB-TF effectively reduced cell growth compared to free RB at the concentrations tested (25 and 50 μM). RB-TF could potentially increase selectivity toward cancer cells. Considering the outcomes of the characterization and cytotoxicity studies performed on RB-TF, we conclude that RB-TF represents a valid potential alternative tool to fight against primary melanoma lesions via dermal delivery in the absence of light.

Improving Dermal Delivery of Rose Bengal by Deformable Lipid Nanovesicles for Topical Treatment of Melanoma / Demartis, S.; Rassu, G.; Murgia, S.; Casula, L.; Giunchedi, P.; Gavini, E.. - In: MOLECULAR PHARMACEUTICS. - ISSN 1543-8384. - 18:11(2021), pp. 4046-4057-4057. [10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.1c00468]

Improving Dermal Delivery of Rose Bengal by Deformable Lipid Nanovesicles for Topical Treatment of Melanoma

Demartis S.;Rassu G.;Giunchedi P.;Gavini E.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Cutaneous melanoma is one of the most aggressive and metastatic forms of skin cancer. However, current therapeutic options present several limitations, and the annual death rate due to melanoma increases every year. Dermal delivery of nanomedicines can effectively eradicate primary melanoma lesions, avoid the metastatic process, and improve survival. Rose Bengal (RB) is a sono-photosensitizer drug with intrinsic cytotoxicity toward melanoma without external stimuli but the biopharmaceutical profile limits its clinical use. Here, we propose deformable lipid nanovesicles, also known as transfersomes (TF), for the targeted dermal delivery of RB to melanoma lesions to eradicate them in the absence of external stimuli. Considering RB's poor ability to cross the stratum corneum and its photosensitizer nature, transfersomal carriers were selected simultaneously to enhance RB penetration to the deepest skin layers and protect RB from undesired photodegradation. RB-loaded TF dispersion (RB-TF), prepared by a modified reverse-phase evaporation method, were nanosized with a ζ-potential value below -30 mV. The spectrophotometric and fluorimetric analysis revealed that RB efficiently interacted with the lipid phase. The morphological investigations (transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering) proved that RB intercalated within the phospholipid bilayer of TF originating unilamellar and deformable vesicles, in contrast to the rigid multilamellar unloaded ones. Such outcomes agree with the results of the in vitro permeation study, where the lack of a burst RB permeation peak for RB-TF, observed instead for the free drug, suggests that a significant amount of RB interacted with lipid nanovesicles. Also, RB-TF proved to protect RB from undesired photodegradation over 24 h of direct light exposure. The ex vivo epidermis permeation study proved that RB-TF significantly increased RB's amount permeating the epidermis compared to the free drug (78.31 vs 38.31%). Finally, the antiproliferative assays on melanoma cells suggested that RB-TF effectively reduced cell growth compared to free RB at the concentrations tested (25 and 50 μM). RB-TF could potentially increase selectivity toward cancer cells. Considering the outcomes of the characterization and cytotoxicity studies performed on RB-TF, we conclude that RB-TF represents a valid potential alternative tool to fight against primary melanoma lesions via dermal delivery in the absence of light.
2021
Improving Dermal Delivery of Rose Bengal by Deformable Lipid Nanovesicles for Topical Treatment of Melanoma / Demartis, S.; Rassu, G.; Murgia, S.; Casula, L.; Giunchedi, P.; Gavini, E.. - In: MOLECULAR PHARMACEUTICS. - ISSN 1543-8384. - 18:11(2021), pp. 4046-4057-4057. [10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.1c00468]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11388/249674
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