Surgical resection is the gold standard for the treatment of many kinds of tumor, but its success depends on the early diagnosis and the absence of metastases. However, many deep-seated tumors (liver, pancreas, for example) are often unresectable at the time of diagnosis. Chemother-apies and radiotherapies are a second line for cancer treatment. The “enhanced permeability and retention” (EPR) effect is believed to play a fundamental role in the passive uptake of drug-loaded nanocarriers, for example polymeric nanoparticles, in deep-seated tumors. However, criticisms of the EPR effect were recently raised, particularly in advanced human cancers: obstructed blood vessels and suppressed blood flow determine a heterogeneity of the EPR effect, with negative consequences on nanocarrier accumulation, retention, and intratumoral distribution. Therefore, to improve the nanomedicine uptake, there is a strong need for “EPR enhancers”. Electrochemotherapy represents an important tool for the treatment of deep-seated tumors, usually combined with the systemic (intravenous) administration of anticancer drugs, such as bleomycin or cisplatin. A possible new strategy, worthy of investigation, could be the use of this technique as an “EPR enhancer” of a target tumor, combined with the intratumoral administration of drug-loaded nanoparticles. This is a general overview of the rational basis for which EP could be envisaged as an “EPR enhancer” in nanomedicine.
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|Titolo:||Electrochemotherapy of deep-seated tumors: State of art and perspectives as possible “epr effect enhancer” to improve cancer nanomedicine efficacy|
GIUNCHEDI, Paolo (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2021|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|