Introduction: The nature of the surface is critical in determining the biological activity of silica powders. A novel correlation between toxicity and surface properties of bioactive glass ceramics (BGCs) synthesized via the sol–gel method was attempted in this study. Methods: The behavior of BGCs after their attachment to the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) was evaluated and their toxic effects were determined based on hemolysis, membrane injury via anti-phosphotyrosine immunoblot of Band 3, lipid peroxidation, potential to generate reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant enzyme production. In particular, three BGCs were synthesized and treated at three sintering temperatures (T1 = 835 °C, T2 = 1000 °C and T3 = 1100 °C) to investigate possible relation between surface charge or structure and hemolytic potential. Results: Their toxicity based on hemolysis was dose dependent, while BGC-T2 had the best hemocompatibility in compare with the other BGCs.No BGCs in dosages lower than 0.125 mg/mL could damage erythrocytes. On the other hand, all BGCs promoted the production of reactive oxygen species in certain concentrations, with the BGC-T2 producing the lowest ROS and increasing the glutathione levels in RBCs protecting their damage. Conclusions: The results suggest that various factors such as size, a probable different proportion of surface silanols, a balanced mechanism between calcium and magnesium cellular uptake or the different crystalline nature may have contributed to this finding; however, future research is needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms.
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|Titolo:||Effect of Sintering Temperature of Bioactive Glass Nanoceramics on the Hemolytic Activity and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Erythrocytes|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|