Nowadays, the mislabeling of honey floral origin is a very common fraudulent practice. The scientific community is intensifying its efforts to provide the bodies responsible for controlling the authenticity of honey with fast and reliable analytical protocols. In this study, the classification of various monofloral honeys from Sardinia, Italy, was attempted by means of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and random forest. Four different floral origins were considered: strawberry-tree (Arbutus Unedo L.), asphodel (Asphodelus microcarpus), thistle (Galactites tormentosa), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus calmadulensis). Training a random forest on the infrared spectra allowed achieving an average accuracy of 87% in a cross-validation setting. The identification of the significant wavenumbers revealed the important role played by the region 1540-1175 cm-1 and, to a lesser extent, the region 1700-1600 cm-1. The contribution of the phenolic fraction was identified as the main responsible for this observation.
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