Purpose: Paracetamol is the only drug recommended to treat fever in neonates. At recommended doses, paracetamol has not been associated with liver injury in neonates, while hepatotoxicity may occur after intake of a single high dose or multiple excessive doses. The aim of this narrative review is to critically analyze and summarize the available literature on newborns and infants exposed to supratherapeutic doses of paracetamol, with special focus on their clinical features, outcome, and management. Methods: The PubMed, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar search engines were used to collect data, without time limitation. The following keywords were used: paracetamol/acetaminophen, overdose, hepatotoxicity, N-acetylcysteine, newborn, infant. Results: The literature search identified a total of 27 case reports, a number of review articles, and few other relevant publications. Neonatal poisoning from paracetamol resulted from transplacental drug transfer after maternal overdose in some published cases, while it was the consequence of medication errors in other cases. Newborns and infants who have received a single overdose and have paracetamol concentrations below the Rumack-Matthew nomogram limits are at low risk of serious hepatic damage, while those who have recently ingested more than one supratherapeutic dose of paracetamol should be managed with caution. The treatment of choice for paracetamol poisoning is N-acetylcysteine, a specific antidote which reduces paracetamol hepatotoxic effects. N-Acetylcysteine should be given according to specific regimens through weight-based dosing tables. Conclusions: Caution should be used when paracetamol is administered to the newborn. In the event of an overdose, careful patient monitoring and personalization of post-overdose procedures are recommended.
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|Titolo:||Paracetamol overdose in the newborn and infant: a life-threatening event|
ANTONUCCI, Roberto (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2021|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|