Primary liver cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA), are highly lethal tumors, with high worldwide frequency and few effective treatment options. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a central regulator of cell growth and metabolism that integrates inputs from amino acids, nutrients, and extracellular signals. The mTOR protein is incorporated into two distinct complexes: mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). Specifically, mTORC1 regulates protein synthesis, glucose and lipid metabolism, and autophagy, whereas mTORC2 promotes liver tumorigenesis through modulating the adenine/cytosine/guanine family of serine/threonine kinases, especially the protein kinase B proteins. In human HCC and iCCA samples, genomics analyses have revealed the frequent deregulation of the mTOR complexes. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the key role of mTORC1 and mTORC2 in liver-tumor development and progression. The first-generation mTOR inhibitors have been evaluated for effectiveness in liver-tumor treatment and have provided unsatisfactory results. Current research efforts are devoted to generating more efficacious mTOR inhibitors and identifying biomarkers for patient selection as well as for combination therapies. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the mechanisms leading to a deregulated mTOR signaling cascade in liver cancers, the mechanisms whereby the mTOR pathway contributes to HCC and iCCA molecular pathogenesis, the therapeutic strategies, and the challenges to effectively inhibit mTOR in liver-cancer treatment. Conclusion: Deregulated mTOR signaling significantly contributes to HCC and iCCA molecular pathogenesis. mTOR inhibitors, presumably administered in association with other drugs, might be effective against subsets of human liver tumors.
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|Titolo:||Role of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Pathway in Liver Cancer: From Molecular Genetics to Targeted Therapies|
CALVISI, Diego Francesco (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|