Johne’s disease (JD) is a life-threatening gastrointestinal disease affecting ruminants, which causes crucial economical losses globally. This ailment is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), a fastidious intracellular pathogen that belongs to the Mycobacteriaceae family. This acid-fast, hard-to-detect bacterium can resist milk pasteurization and be conveyed to dairy product consumers. Many studies have emphasized the zoonotic nature of MAP, suggesting an association between MAP and some gastroenteric conditions such as Crohn’s disease in humans. This underlines the importance of utilizing efficient pasteurization alongside a state-of-the-art diagnostic system in order to minimize the possible ways this pathogen can be conveyed to humans. Until now, no confirmatory MAP screening technique has been developed that can reveal the stages of JD in infected animals. This is partially due to the lack of an efficient gold-standard reference method that can properly evaluate the performance of diagnostic assays. Therefore, the following research aimed to compare the merits of qPCR and ELISA assessments of milk for the detection of MAP in a total of 201 Sardinian unpasteurized sheep milk samples including 73 bulk tank milk (BTM) and 128 individual samples from a MAP-infected flock (MIF) applying various reference models. Accordingly, milk qPCR and ELISA assessments, together and individually, were used as reference models in the herd-level study, while serum ELISA and fecal PCR were similarly (together and in isolation) considered as the gold standards in the individual-level diagnosis. This study showed that the type of gold-standard test affects the sensitivity and specificity of milk qPCR and ELISA significantly. At the individual level in the MAP-infected flock, serum ELISA in isolation and together with fecal PCR were recognized as the best references; however, the best correlation was seen between milk and serum ELISA (p < 0.0001). Regarding the detection of MAP in BTM, qPCR IS900 was recognized as the most sensitive and specific diagnostic test (p < 0.0001) for monitoring the MAP shedders and animals with clinically developed symptoms within herds, under the condition that both milk qPCR and milk ELISA tests formed a binary reference model. The BTM analyses (qPCR and ELISA) revealed that MAP positivity has a seasonal pattern. This hypothesis was proven through a longitudinal study on 14 sheep herds.

Identification of mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis (map) in sheep milk, a zoonotic problem / Hosseiniporgham, S.; Cubeddu, T.; Rocca, S.; Sechi, L. A.. - In: MICROORGANISMS. - ISSN 2076-2607. - 8:9(2020), pp. 1-20. [10.3390/microorganisms8091264]

Identification of mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis (map) in sheep milk, a zoonotic problem

Hosseiniporgham S.;Cubeddu T.;Rocca S.;Sechi L. A.
2020-01-01

Abstract

Johne’s disease (JD) is a life-threatening gastrointestinal disease affecting ruminants, which causes crucial economical losses globally. This ailment is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), a fastidious intracellular pathogen that belongs to the Mycobacteriaceae family. This acid-fast, hard-to-detect bacterium can resist milk pasteurization and be conveyed to dairy product consumers. Many studies have emphasized the zoonotic nature of MAP, suggesting an association between MAP and some gastroenteric conditions such as Crohn’s disease in humans. This underlines the importance of utilizing efficient pasteurization alongside a state-of-the-art diagnostic system in order to minimize the possible ways this pathogen can be conveyed to humans. Until now, no confirmatory MAP screening technique has been developed that can reveal the stages of JD in infected animals. This is partially due to the lack of an efficient gold-standard reference method that can properly evaluate the performance of diagnostic assays. Therefore, the following research aimed to compare the merits of qPCR and ELISA assessments of milk for the detection of MAP in a total of 201 Sardinian unpasteurized sheep milk samples including 73 bulk tank milk (BTM) and 128 individual samples from a MAP-infected flock (MIF) applying various reference models. Accordingly, milk qPCR and ELISA assessments, together and individually, were used as reference models in the herd-level study, while serum ELISA and fecal PCR were similarly (together and in isolation) considered as the gold standards in the individual-level diagnosis. This study showed that the type of gold-standard test affects the sensitivity and specificity of milk qPCR and ELISA significantly. At the individual level in the MAP-infected flock, serum ELISA in isolation and together with fecal PCR were recognized as the best references; however, the best correlation was seen between milk and serum ELISA (p < 0.0001). Regarding the detection of MAP in BTM, qPCR IS900 was recognized as the most sensitive and specific diagnostic test (p < 0.0001) for monitoring the MAP shedders and animals with clinically developed symptoms within herds, under the condition that both milk qPCR and milk ELISA tests formed a binary reference model. The BTM analyses (qPCR and ELISA) revealed that MAP positivity has a seasonal pattern. This hypothesis was proven through a longitudinal study on 14 sheep herds.
Identification of mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis (map) in sheep milk, a zoonotic problem / Hosseiniporgham, S.; Cubeddu, T.; Rocca, S.; Sechi, L. A.. - In: MICROORGANISMS. - ISSN 2076-2607. - 8:9(2020), pp. 1-20. [10.3390/microorganisms8091264]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11388/239725
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