Tissue transglutaminase (t-TG) is a multifunctional protein involved in the healing of gastric erosions and ulcers in animal models. The aim of this study was to measure gastric t-TG activity in patients with dyspepsia according to Helicobacter pylori infection and cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) and vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) subtype status. Patients undergoing upper endoscopy not taking any medications were enrolled. Tissue-TG activity was determined in homogenates of antral specimens using a radiometric assay and was expressed in pmol/mg. The cagA and vacA genotypes were determined by PCR amplification using gene-specific oligoprimers. Data from 46 patients were available (17 of them were positive for H. pylori). Antral t-TG activity was significantly increased in H. pylori positive patients compared to H. pylori negative patients (6437 ± 3691 vs. 3773 ± 1530 pmol/mg; P = 0.001) according to Mann–Whitney U test. Patients with H. pylori negative gastritis had higher t-TG activity than patients with normal gastric mucosa. The specimens infected with cagA positive strains (72%) displayed greater t-TG activity than cagA negative samples (7358 ± 4318 vs. 4895 ± 1062 pmol/mg; P = 0.237). Similarly, t-TG activity was higher in H. pylori vacAs1/m1 strains vs. vacA s1/m2 (7429 vs. 5045 pmol/mg; P = 0.744), and vacA s1/m1 vs. s2/m2 (7429 vs. 4489 pmol/mg; P = 0.651) but the results were not significant. No differences were found between histology, endoscopy features and t-TG activity. These results show that t-TG activity is significantly greater in gastritis associated with H. pylori infection, suggesting that this enzyme is induced by inflammation and may have an important role in the natural history of human gastritis. Impact statement: Tissue transglutaminase (t-TG) is unique among TG enzymes because of its additional role in several physiological and pathological activities, including inflammation, fibrosis, and wound healing. The presence of t-TG has previously been described in the intestine of human and animal models, yet studies on t-TG activity in human gastric mucosa are missing. Helicobacter pylori infection is the major cause of gastritis and peptic ulcers. For the first time, our results show that t-TG activity was significantly higher in antral specimens of patients with chronic active gastritis associated with H. pylori infection compared to H. pylori negative chronic gastritis and normal antral mucosa. These findings suggest that t-TG has a role in the natural history of human gastritis, which requires further investigation but may be an avenue for new therapeutic options.
Tissue transglutaminase activity in human gastric mucosa according to Helicobacter pylori infection / Dore, M. P.; Pes, G. M.; Errigo, A.; Manca, A.; Realdi, G.. - In: EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE. - ISSN 1535-3702. - 243:15-16(2018), pp. 1161-1164. [10.1177/1535370218819423]