Abstract: Colombian mountain Páramos are considered natural areas with a very important role for human life. Páramos provide, both in mountain and lowland areas, a multitude of ecosystem services which start from vegetation to soil sustainability. The sustainability of Páramos is however impaired by several anthropogenic activities, including agricultural and livestock practices. A system thinking approach was applied in this work to improve the systemic understanding of factors aecting sustainability and resilience of Páramos agro-ecosystems. Interdisciplinary literature evidences were summarized and conceptually analyzed in order to develop causal loop diagrams of Páramo system structures allowing describing the main feedback loops involving (involved in/connecting) the Páramo ecosystem and driving its sustainability. From the causal diagram analysis few insights to maintain the human presence in Páramos arose. The system analysis highlights that human presence in Páramos should be stimulated, avoiding agriculture and livestock activities as the main income source. Particularly, social interactions, education on the Páramos environmental and relevance of agricultural practices to foster ecosystem services and multiple rentable economic activities should be enhanced. The study also includes the role of the government in providing the Páramo inhabitants with payments for ecosystem services and environmental education aimed to boost sustainability. Sustainable Páramo management will apply specific leverages on the system to reach Sustainable Development Goals 6 (water), 8 (economic growth, employment and work), 13 (climate change), and 15 (sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems) of the Agenda 2030.
Sustainable Feedbacks of Colombian Paramos Involving Livestock, Agricultural Activities, and Sustainable Development Goals of the Agenda 2030 / Andrés Molina Benavides, Raúl; Campos Gaona, Rómulo; Sánchez Guerrero, Hugo; Giraldo Patiño, Leonidas; ATZORI, Alberto Stanislao. - In: SYSTEMS. - ISSN 2079-8954. - 7:52(2019), pp. 1-17. [10.3390/systems7040052]