Tumor microenvironment is a complex, multicellular functional compartment that, particularly when assembled as an abundant desmoplastic reaction, may profoundly affect the proliferative and invasive abilities of epithelial cancer cells. Tumor microenvironment comprises not only stromal cells, mainly cancer-associated fibroblasts, but also immune cells of both the innate and adaptive system (tumor-associated macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells, and T and B lymphocytes), and endothelial cells. This results in an intricate web of mutual communications regulated by an extensively remodeled extracellular matrix, where the tumor cells are centrally engaged. In this regard, cholangiocarcinoma, in particular the intrahepatic variant, has become the focus of mounting interest in the last years, largely due to the lack of effective therapies despite its rising incidence and high mortality rates worldwide. On the other hand, recent studies in pancreatic cancer, which similarly to cholangiocarcinoma, is highly desmoplastic, have argued against a tumor-promoting function of the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we will discuss recent developments concerning the role of each cellular population and their multifaceted interplay with the malignant biliary epithelial counterpart. We ultimately hope to provide the working knowledge on how their manipulation may lead to a therapeutic gain in cholangiocarcinoma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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|Titolo:||The tumour microenvironment and immune milieu of cholangiocarcinoma|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|