Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of the species complex Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. Within this complex, genotypes G6 and G7 have been frequently associated with human CE worldwide. Previous studies exploring the genetic variability and phylogeography of genotypes G6 and G7 have been based on relatively short mtDNA sequences, and the resolution of these studies has often been low. Moreover, using short sequences, the distinction between G6 and G7 has in some cases remained challenging. The aim here was to sequence complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) to obtain deeper insight into the genetic diversity, phylogeny and population structure of genotypes G6 and G7. We sequenced complete mitogenomes of 94 samples collected from 15 different countries worldwide. The results demonstrated that (i) genotypes G6 and G7 can be clearly distinguished when mitogenome sequences are used; (ii) G7 is represented by two major haplogroups, G7a and G7b, the latter being specific to islands of Corsica and Sardinia; (iii) intensive animal trade, but also geographical isolation, have likely had the largest impact on shaping the genetic structure and distribution of genotypes G6 and G7. In addition, we found phylogenetically highly divergent haplotype from Mongolia (Gmon), which had a higher affinity to G6.
The benefits of analysing complete mitochondrial genomes: Deep insights into the phylogeny and population structure of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato genotypes G6 and G7 / Laurimäe, Teivi; Kinkar, Liina; Romig, Thomas; Omer, Rihab A; Casulli, Adriano; Umhang, Gérald; Gasser, Robin B; Jabbar, Abdul; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Mirhendi, Hossein; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco; Lazzarini, Lorena E; Soriano, Silvia V; Varcasia, Antonio; Nejad, Mohammad Rostami; Andresiuk, Vanessa; Maravilla, Pablo; González, Luis Miguel; Dybicz, Monika; Gawor, Jakub; Šarkūnas, Mindaugas; Šnábel, Viliam; Kuzmina, Tetiana; Saarma, Urmas. - In: INFECTION GENETICS AND EVOLUTION. - ISSN 1567-1348. - (2018). [10.1016/j.meegid.2018.06.016]