The role of neutrophil elastase (NE) is poorly understood in bronchiectasis because of the lack of preclinical data and so most of the assumptions made about NE inhibitor potential benefit is based on data from CF. In this context, NE seems to be a predictor of long-term clinical outcomes and a possible target of treatment. In order to better evaluate the role of NE in bronchiectasis, a systematic search of scientific evidence was performed.Two investigators independently performed the search on PubMed and included studies published up to May 15, 2017 according to predefined criteria. A final pool of 31 studies was included in the systematic review, with a total of 2679 patients. For each paper data of interest were extracted and reported in table.In this review sputum NE has proved useful as an inflammatory marker both in stable state bronchiectasis and during exacerbations and local or systemic antibiotic treatment. NE has also been associated with risk of exacerbation, time to next exacerbation and all-cause mortality. This study reviews also the role of NE as a specific target of treatment in bronchiectasis. Inhibition of NE is at a very early stage and future interventional studies should evaluate safety and efficacy for new molecules and formulations.
Neutrophil elastase in bronchiectasis / Gramegna, Andrea; Amati, Francesco; Terranova, Leonardo; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Tarsia, Paolo; Miglietta, Daniela; Calderazzo, Maria Adelaide; Aliberti, Stefano; Blasi, Francesco. - In: RESPIRATORY RESEARCH. - ISSN 1465-993X. - 18:1(2017), p. 211. [10.1186/s12931-017-0691-x]