The paper provides an updated checklist of the alien flora of Turkey with information on its structure. The alien flora of Turkey comprises 340 taxa, among which there are 321 angiosperms, 17 gymnosperms and two ferns. Of the total number of taxa, 228 (68%) are naturalized and 112 (32%) are casual. There are 275 neophytes (172 naturalized and 103 casual) and 61 archaeophytes (52 naturalized and 9 casual); four species could not be classified with respect to the residence time. In addition, 47 frequently planted taxa with a potential to escape are also listed. The richest families are Asteraceae (38 taxa), Poaceae (30), Fabaceae (23) and Solanaceae (22). As for the naturalized alien plants, the highest species richness is found in Asteraceae (31 taxa), Poaceae (22), Amaranthaceae (18) and Solanaceae (15). The majority of alien taxa are perennial (63.8% of the total number of taxa with this life history assigned, including those with multiple life histories), annuals contribute 33.8% and 2.4% are biennial aliens. Among perennials the most common life forms are phanerophytes, of which 20.3% are trees and 12.6% shrubs; woody vines, stem succulents, and aquatic plants are comparatively less represented. Most of the 340 alien taxa introduced to Turkey have their native ranges in Americas (44.7%) and Asia (27.6%). Of other regions, 9.1% originated in Africa, 4.4% in Eurasia, 3.8% in Australia and Oceania and 3.5% in the Mediterranean. The majority of taxa (71.9%) were introduced intentionally, whereas the remaining (28.1%) were introduced accidentally. Among the taxa introduced intentionally, the vast majority are ornamental plants (55.2%), 10.0% taxa were introduced for forestry and 6.7% as crops. Casual alien plants are most commonly found in urban and ruderal habitats (40.1%) where naturalized taxa are also often recorded (27.3%). Plants that occur as agricultural weeds are typically naturalized rather than casual (16.0% vs 7.1%, respectively). However, (semi)natural habitats in Turkey are often invaded by alien taxa, especially by those that are able to naturalize.
Alien flora of Turkey: Checklist, taxonomic composition and ecological attributes / Uludag, Ahmet; Aksoy, Necmi; Yazlik, Ayåse; Arslan, Zubeyde Filiz; Yazmiås, Efecan; Uremis, Ilhan; Cossu, Tiziana Antonella; Groom, Quentin; Pergl, Jan; Pysek, Petr; Brundu, Giuseppe Antonio Domenic. - In: NEOBIOTA. - ISSN 1619-0033. - 35:(2017), pp. 61-85. [10.3897/neobiota.35.12460]