Objective: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal adenocarcinoma have been increasing. We studied the relationship of conventional risk factors and Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with erosive and non-erosive GERD and Barrett’s esophagus. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study of dyspeptic patients undergoing upper endoscopy between 2002 and 2013. Following endoscopy, those with previously undiagnosed GERD were sub-grouped into non-erosive GERD (NERD), erosive GERD (eGERD), or Barrett's esophagus. H. pylori status was confirmed by 2 positive tests. Results: About 5156 patients were included, GERD was present in 65.6% including 1992 with NERD and 1392 with eGERD. About 1772 dyspeptic patients without symptoms of reflux and/or esophagitis served as controls. A hiatal hernia increased the risk of both eGERD and NERD. eGERD was more prevalent among the obese (OR =1.72, p < 0.001), men (OR =1.38, p < 0.001) and current smokers. Helicobacter pylori infection was significantly more common among those with NERD (OR =1.17 versus 1.01, p = 0.046). Logistic regression analysis for eGERD and NERD using age, gender, body mass index, H. pylori infection, hiatal hernia, and smoking showed that overweight and hiatal hernia were significant risk factors for eGERD, and female gender for NERD. Male gender, eGERD and age >50 years were the major risk factors for Barrett’s esophagus. Conclusions: The epidemiology of eGERD and NERD suggests differences in pathogenesis, and prevention and treatment strategies should be separately examined in men and women.
Risk factors for erosive and non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus in Nothern Sardinia / Dore, Maria Pina; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Bassotti, G; Farina, Ma; Marras, G; Graham, Dy. - In: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY. - ISSN 0036-5521. - 51:11(2016), pp. 1281-1287. [10.1080/00365521.2016.1200137]