Several metals and metal containing compounds are potent mutagens and carcinogens. Nickel is one of the most abundant transition metals in the earth’s crust. It is widely distributed in the environment. Natural sources of atmospheric nickel include dusts from volcanic emissions and weathering of rocks and soils; natural sources of aqueous nickel derive from biological cycles and solubilization of metal compounds from soils. However, anthropogenic sources are the main responsible of the abundance of the metal in the environment. In fact, it is widely used in the modern industry and several industrial processes, including mining and refining, electroplating, production of electronic devices, nickel cadmium batteries, together with the combustion of fossil fuels and the incineration of nickel containing solid waste are responsible for the release of nickel containing aerosols in the workplace as well as in the surrounding environment [1,2]. In industrialized regions and large cities, atmospheric nickel concentration may reach 120-170 ng/m3, compared to 6-17 ng/m3 in suburban areas. Human exposure to nickel occurs predominantly via inhalation and ingestion and it is particularly high among Ni metallurgy workers. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a direct correlation between the incidence of respiratory cancer and worksite exposure to Ni. The relative carcinogenic activity of Ni compounds can be consistently related to their chemical form [3-5].
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|Titolo:||Nickel in the Environment and Human Health|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2005|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||4.2 Abstract in Atti di convegno|