In Italy, two acts regulate the conservation of natural environment: Act no. 979/1982 on the sea defense and Act no. 394/1991 on protected areas. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and National Parks (NP) are considered one of the most effective tools in promoting the preservation and conservation of the marine environment as well as sustainable development, providing social and economic benefits to local communities. However, without effective management, protected areas are unlikely to achieve the high expectations of conservation and development and have been often criticized for leading to negative social, economic, cultural and political impacts to local communities. This represents a problematic issue because the success of a protected area depends on the local perceptions of socio-economic and ecological outcomes and on the perceptions of the effectiveness and quality of management and governance policies, institutions, and processes. Furthermore, the designation of national park also leads to conflicts between local communities and managers. As national parks and surrounding communities are highly dependent on each other, the task of managing stakeholder interests and potential use conflicts should be of high priority for park managers. The study aims to identify and analyze existing and potential conflicts between park management, use, local population and their activities.
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